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Why Doing Business Ranking Should be Corrected in Case of Nepal?

Posted by naturead on April 5, 2019 at 1:30 AM Comments comments (0)

विश्व बैंक मलाइ हावा लाग्यो है !!!!

खासमा यो विश्व बैंक ले के चाहि हेरेर doing business ranking मा नेपाल लाइ पछाडी राखेको होला? मा दङ्ग छु ।

हेर्नुस केहि तथ्य, ऐलेसम्म कुनै ब्यबसाय सरकारले बन्द गरेको रेकर्ड छ र ?

१. डिजेल पेट्रोलमा जतिसुकै मिसावट गर्नुस अथवा कम मात्रामा दिनुस अनि कमाउनुस

२. तपाई जति सुकै कालो बजारी गर्नुस कर छाल्नुस अनि कमाउनुस

३. शैक्षिक संस्था अथवा अस्पताल जे ब्यापार गर्नुस, शुल्क मनलाग्दी लिनुस कुनै संस्था खारेज हुदैन अनि कमाउनुस

४. राजमार्गमा होटेल ग्रोसरी खोल्नुस, गुणस्तर जे सुकै गर्नुस मनग्ये असुल्नुस अनि कमाउनुस

५. जति सक्नुहुन्छ कर छाल्नुस मिलाउनुस अनि कमाउनुस

६. ठेकेदारी वा परामर्श दाताको ब्यबसाय गर्नुस काम जस्तो सुकै गर्नुस धेरै गरे कालो सुचिमा पर्नुहोला ब्यबसाय बन्द हुदैन ढुक्क हुनुहोस अनि कमाउनुस

७. यातायात मा लगानी गर्नुस भाडा मज्जाले लिनुस कमाउनुस अनि कमाउनुस

८. गाडी बेच्नुस, कपडा बेच्नुस, तरकारी बेच्नुस, रासन बेच्नुस दश गुणा पैसा लिनुस अनि कमाउनुस

९. बैंक फाइनान्स मा लगानी गर्नुस मनलाग्दी ब्याज असुल्नुस अनि कमाउनुस

१०. रियल स्टेट मा लगानी गर्न मन छ भनेपनि घर जग्गाको मूल्य आफूखुसी राख्नुस अनि मस्त कमाउनुस

११. ल यति गर्दा पनि भएन रे, ठ्याक्क हिसाब गर्नुस लिने भन्दा दिने बढी बनाएर भाग्नुस

यी सब कुरा नेपालमा फ्री नै छ सबै गर्दा अफिसमा चाहि हल्का मिलाउनु पर्छ है

ल भन्नुस यस्तो बिजनेस गर्ने र कमाउने बाताबरण नेपालमा जस्तो अरु कुन देशमा होला ? यो विश्व बैंक अरु देश घुमेकी छैन जस्तो छ

Cockroach Theory

Posted by naturead on January 2, 2019 at 12:20 AM Comments comments (0)

A beautiful speech by Sundar Pichai - an IIT-MIT Alumnus and Global Head Google Chrome:

The cockroach theory for self development

At a restaurant, a cockroach suddenly flew from somewhere and sat on a lady.

She started screaming out of fear.

With a panic stricken face and trembling voice, she started jumping, with both her hands desperately trying to get rid of the cockroach.

Her reaction was contagious, as everyone in her group also got panicky.

The lady finally managed to push the cockroach away but ...it landed on another lady in the group.

Now, it was the turn of the other lady in the group to continue the drama.

The waiter rushed forward to their rescue.

In the relay of throwing, the cockroach next fell upon the waiter.

The waiter stood firm, composed himself and observed the behavior of the cockroach on his shirt.

When he was confident enough, he grabbed it with his fingers and threw it out of the restaurant.

Sipping my coffee and watching the amusement, the antenna of my mind picked up a few thoughts and started wondering, was the cockroach responsible for their histrionic behavior?

If so, then why was the waiter not disturbed?

He handled it near to perfection, without any chaos.

It is not the cockroach, but the inability of those people to handle the disturbance caused by the cockroach, that disturbed the ladies.

I realized that, it is not the shouting of my father or my boss or my wife that disturbs me, but it's my inability to handle the disturbances caused by their shouting that disturbs me.

It's not the traffic jams on the road that disturbs me, but my inability to handle the disturbance caused by the traffic jam that disturbs me.

More than the problem, it's my reaction to the problem that creates chaos in my life.

Lessons learnt from the story:

I understood, I should not react in life.

I should always respond.

The women reacted, whereas the waiter responded.

Reactions are always instinctive whereas responses are always well thought of.

A beautiful way to understand............LIFE.

Person who is HAPPY is not because Everything is RIGHT in his Life..

He is HAPPY because his Attitude towards Everything in his Life is Right..!!

 

Commitment for the Mayer of Galkot Municipality

Posted by naturead on April 15, 2017 at 4:55 AM Comments comments (0)

म गल्कोट नगरपालिका को मेयरमा निर्बाचित भएमा भए भने निम्न कामहरु गर्ने प्रतिबद्दता ब्यक्त गर्दछु

1. नगरपालिकाभित्रका सार्बजनिक जमिनहरुको लगत तुरुन्तै राख्नेछु किनकि यिनीहरुको अतिक्रमण हुने सम्भावना बढी हुन्छ

2. एकीकृत विकास परियोजनाको खाका नबन्दासम्म नया निर्माण कार्य रोक्नेछु

3. ५ बर्षभित्र हरेक वडाहरुमा कालोपत्रे सडक पुर्याउने प्रतिबद्दता गर्दछु

4. अन्य कुनै बिकसित देश को एउटा शहरसंग भागिनी सम्बन्ध स्थापित गर्दै बिकासको मोडेल तयार गरि प्रत्यक्ष्य बिदेशी सहयोग भित्र्याउने छु

5. नगरपालिकाको केन्द्रमा मा अत्याधुनिक अस्पताल (शल्यक्रिया सुबिधा सहित को) निर्माण गर्नेछु

6. गल्कोट हटियामा रहेको बहुमुखी क्याम्पस लाइ गल्कोट बिश्वबिद्यालय स्थापनार्थ कार्ययोजना तयार गर्नेछु

7. डायस्पोरा लाइ ब्यबस्थित गर्दै दरम खोलामा कम्तिमा २० MW को जल्बिध्युत आयोजना को निर्माण तुरुन्त शुरु गर्नेछु

8. सार्बजनिक निजि साझेदारी अन्तर्गत रहेर पर्यटकीय स्थल घुम्टे र गल्कोट उपत्यका जोड्ने केवल कार को निर्माण गर्नेछु

9. गल्कोटमा हुनसक्ने सम्भावित मुख्य ५ ओटा परियोजना पहिचान गरि हरेक २ बर्षमा गल्कोट लगानी मंच मार्फत लगानी सम्मेलन गरि अन्य लगानी आकर्षित गर्नेछु

10. स्थानीय कर्मचारीलाई प्रोत्साहन गरि भ्रस्टाचार मा सुन्य सहनशीलता अपनाउने छु

11. स्थानीय स्तरमा चाहिने र रहेका हरेक डाटा र आबेदनहरु अनलाइनमार्फत ब्यबस्थापन गर्नेछु र सर्बसाधारण लाइ अत्यावश्यक सरकारी सेवा लिनका लागि केन्द्रमा बास बस्न नपर्ने गरि १ दिनमै सेवा दिने बाताबरण तयार गर्नेछु

12. हटिया देखि माथिको कोट सम्म सुविधासम्पन्न पदमार्ग स्थापना गर्नेछु

13. काडेबासको थालेपोखारा, हटियाको निलुवा, पाण्डवखानी र हरिचौर्को झिर्का जस्ता बस्ति हरुलाई विस्थापन गरि एकीकृत बस्ति निर्माण गर्ने र उक्त ठाउमा आबस्यकता अनुसार रिसोर्ट, भेडाफारम, स्याउबारी जस्ता उत्पादनमुलक उद्योगलाई प्राथमिकता दिनेछु

14. नगरपालिकामा भएका निजि बिध्यालाय्लाई कडाइ गरि सरकारी बिध्यालयको क्ष्यमता र गुणस्तरमा स्तरोन्नति गर्दै ५ बर्सको अन्त्यमा निजि बिद्यालय विस्थापन गर्नेछु (धनि गरिब लाइ समान क्षिछ्या)

15. साबिकका हरेक वडामा एउटा सार्बजनिक भवन निर्माण गरि साइबर क्याफे र पुस्तकालयको ब्यबस्था गर्नेछु

16. बिदेशमा रहेका स्थानीयहरू संग समन्न्वय गरि हरेक वर्ष एउटा परियोजना संचालन गर्नेछु

17. अन्त्यमा, ५ बर्षभित्र नेपालकै नमुना नगरपालिका बनाउने प्रतिबद्धता व्यक्त गर्दछु

यस्ता परतिबद्दता गरेर आउनेलाई भोट दिदा फरक पर्दैन तर यी सबै कुरामा उम्मेदबारको शैक्षिक स्तर को महत्वपुर्ण प्रभाव रहने हुनाले सो कुरामा बिचार गर्नुहोला.

 

समय साप�?�?�?ष ह�?न न�?ान�?�?ा न�?पाल�?ा �?म�?य�?निस�?�? पार�?�?�?हर�?

Posted by naturead on September 20, 2015 at 1:55 AM Comments comments (0)

एक दिन पत्रकारले एक जना पुँजीपति संग प्रश्न राखेछन तपाइँ यति धेरै धनि हुनुको रहस्य के हो ? अनि पुजिपतिले उत्तर दिएछन् मैले ५ सेन्ट मा स्याउ किनेर ल्याउथे अनि बेलुकी भरि बसेर पोलिस गरेर अर्को दिन १० सेन्ट मा बेच्थे अनि अर्कोदिन २० सेन्ट गर्दै ८० सेन्ट सम्ममा बेच्दै थिए त्यहि बेला मेरी श्रीमतीकी आमा बित्नुभयो र उहाले हामीलाई लाखौ डलर छोडेर जानुभयो अनि हामि धनि भएँउ l के यो सत्य होला त ? यदि सत्य हो भने पनि के यो ठिक हो ? हाम्रो समाज मा कोहि खुबी धनि र कोहि गरिब किन छन् ?

कार्ल हेन्-रिक् मार्क्स (५ मे १८१८ - १४ मार्च १८८३) एक प्रसिद्ध दार्शनिक, राजनैतिक अर्थशास्त्री, इतिहासकार, राजनैतिक सिद्धान्तका प्रणेता, समाजशास्त्री, साम्यवादी एवं क्रान्तिकारी व्यक्तिको नाम हो जसले यी प्रश्नहरुको उत्तर खोजे र उनैको विचार र सिद्धान्तको आधारमा वर्तमान साम्यवादको (चोमुनिस्म) जन्म भएको हो उनले आफ्नो जीवन समाजका लागि समर्पण गरे र एउटा बाद को उदय भयो त्यो हो मार्क्सबाद l यो थियो अठारौ शताब्दीको कुरा जतिबेला युरोपियन अर्थतन्त्र मा औद्योगिक क्रान्तिको लहर आइरहेको थियो l नेपाल का कम्युनिस्टहरुले नाम जपिरहने अर्को नाम हो माओ l माओ त्से-तुंग (Mao Zedong) अथवा (Mao Tse-tung)को जन्म २६ दिशम्बर १८९३ मा र मृत्यु ९ सितम्बर १९७६ मा भएको हो| उनी चीनी क्रान्तिकारी, राजनैतिक विचारक र साम्यवादी दलका नेता हुन्, जसको नेतृत्वमा चीनको क्रान्ति सफल भएको थियो| उनले जनवादी गणतन्त्र चीनको स्थापना भएको साल १९४९ देखि यता उनको मृत्यु भएको मिति सन् १९७६ सम्म चीनको नेतृत्व सम्हालेका हुन् | मार्क्स वादी, लेनिनवादी विचारधारालाई सैनिक रणनीतिमा जोडिएको उनको सिद्धान्तलाई माओवादको नामले जानिन्छ | कम्युनिस्ट का कुरा गर्दा छुटाउन नहुने अर्को नाम हो व्लादिमीर इलीइच लेनिन (१८७०-१९२४) रूसमा बोल्शेविक क्रांतिको नेता एवं रूसमा साम्यवादी शासनको संस्थापक थिए |

आधारभूत रुपमा यिनै तिन जनालाई आदर्श मान्दै राजनीति गर्ने कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी हरु नेपाल मा मात्रै दर्जन भन्दा बढी सक्रिय छन् | हाम्रो जस्तो निरक्षर जनसंख्या बढी भएको मुलुकमा ठोस रुपमा कम्युनिस्ट के हो भनेर बुझ्ने संख्या अति न्युन भएको अनुमान लगाउन गाह्रो पर्दैन | त्यसैले नेपालका अर्धसिक्षित जनताले राजनीतिलाई बम्शानुगत प्रक्रियाको रुपमा लिने गर्दछन | खास भन्दा अहिले देशमा देखिएको समस्याको चुरो कुरो पनि यहि हो | किन भने हामीले आफ्नो पार्टी बाउबाजेको अंशको रुपमा पाएका हौ आफ्नो बिबेक ले चुनेको होइन | यसको प्रतिबिम्ब बारम्बार चुनाब मा देखिने गर्दछ फलस्वरूप हरेक चुनाबमा आशातित परिणाम नै आउने गरेको छ | कारण जुनसुकै भएपनि जनताले पहिलो संबिधान सभामा बिरलै गर्ने प्रयोग गरेका थिए र त्यसबाट सोचेअनुसारको उपलब्धि नदेखिएपछि जनता पुरानै धारमा फर्केको स्पष्ट छ |

बिगत केहि दशक को तथ्यांक हेर्दा नेपालमा करिब ६०% भन्दा बढी जनता कम्युनिष्ट विचारधारा प्रति झुकाब राख्छन तर नेपालको इतिहासमा कुनै पनि कम्युनिस्ट पार्टीले एकल बहुमतको सरकार बनाउन सकेको छैन | यसको एकमात्र कारण प्रमुख भनेको नेपालि कम्युनिष्ट हरुको फुटको राजनीति नै हो | जुन पार्टी को आधारभूत सिद्धान्त नै सामुहिक बिकासको लागि काम गर्ने भन्ने छ तिनै पार्टीहरु एकै समुहमा बस्न सक्दैनन् भने जनताले कसरि आशा गर्ने त? सबैको आदर्श एउटै, झण्डा एउटै तर नाम फरक छ अनि कसरि बन्छ एकल सरकार | मेरो गोरुको बाह्रै टक्का भनेझै बरु पार्टी बिघटन गर्न तयार हुन्छन बदलिन तयार हुदैनन् |

किन हुन्छ त नेपालि कम्युनिस्ट मा फुट ? यो प्रश्न आफैमा यति गहन छ कि यसको सहि उत्तर पाउन फेरी कार्ल मार्क्स नै जन्मिनु पर्ने अबस्था छ | तर हामि संग भएको अनुभब को आधार मा भन्ने हो भने अबसरबाद नै एक प्रमुख कारण हो जसले नेपालि कम्युनिष्ट इतिहासलाई पछाडी धकिलिरहेको छ | सापेक्षताबाद एउटा अर्को यस्तो अदृश्य कारण हो जसले नेपालि कम्युनिस्ट नेताहरुलाई विचलित गराइरहेको छ | समाजमा आफ्नै तहका अन्य पार्टीका कार्यकर्ताहरुको जिबनशैली, नेपालमा बढ्दै गएको पैसाको महत्व, बिकसित विश्वको माझमा अति कम बिकसित हुनु इत्यादि ले कम्युनिस्ट हरुको बुझाइ नै परिबर्तन गरिदिने गरेको छ जसले गर्दा उनीहरु जहिले पनि अबसरको खोजीमा भौतारिदिन्छन | जीवनभर सर्बहारा वर्ग भन्दै गाउँतिर बसेर राजनीति गर्नेहरु एक्कासि शहर छिर्दा कतिपय नेताहरुलाई तुरुन्तै बजार लाग्ने गरेको छ जसले गर्दा उनिहरु शहरुन्मुख हुने गर्दछन | एकै खालको स्कुलिंग मा हुर्केका नेताहरुमा एकापसमा इगो उत्पन्न हुदा पनि बिना कारण पार्टी फुट्ने गरेका छन् | यी भए फूटका सम्भाभित कारणहरु जसले कम्युनिष्ट हरुलाई पतनको बाटोमा डोराउदै छ |

अब कुरा गरौ सिध्दान्तको | के नेपालका कम्युनिष्ट हरुले अठारौ शताब्दिकै नारा अघि सारेर हिडिरहने कि समय अनुसार परिमार्जित हुने भन्ने कुरामा गहन अध्यन गर्न जरुरि देखिन्छ | विश्व इतिहास हेर्ने हो भने मार्क्स नै समाजबाद का पिता हुन् र माओ, एन्जेल , स्टालिन , लेनिन सबै उनका अनुयायी | लेनिनले रुसमा र माओले चीनमा तत्कालिन परिवेश हेरेर चालेको कदम ले सफलता पाएकै आधारमा नेपालमा त्यसको छाया उतार्न खोज्नु कत्तिको बैज्ञानिक पद्दति हो | अहिलेको विश्व राजनीति, जनताको चेतनास्तर, आर्थिक गतिबिधि र सामाजिक परिबर्तन लाइ हेर्दा पूर्ण समाजबाद कत्तिको सम्भव देखिन्छ त ? कार्ल मार्क्सले १८४८मा प्रकाशित कम्युनिष्ट घोषणा पत्र (The Communist Manifesto)को प्रथम अध्यायको पहिलो पंक्तिमा आफ्नो दृष्टिकोणको सार लेखेका छन् : "अहिले सम्मको सम्पूर्ण समाजको इतिहास वर्ग संघर्षको इतिहास हो" The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.” मार्क्सले तर्क दिएका छन् : "पुरानो सामाजिक आर्थिक प्रणाली सरह पूँजीवाद पनि आन्तरिक तनावको कारण विनाश भएर जानेछ | जसरी सामन्तवादको स्थान पूँजीवादले लिन्छ त्यसरी नैं समाजवादले पनि पूंजीवादको स्थान ओगट्ने पालो निश्चय आउनेछ अनि राज्यविहीन, वर्गहीन शुद्ध साम्यवादी समाजको निर्माण हुनेछ | मार्क्स ले स्पष्ट भनेका छन् कि समाज मा अस्थयित्व सिर्जना गर्ने तत्व भनेको वर्ग हो अथवा धनि र गरिब बिचको खाडल हो जवसम्म यो रहिरहन्छ तबसम्म समाजमा द्वन्द भैरहन्छ | यो समाजशास्त्रको आधारभूत सिद्धान्त हो र गैर कम्युनिष्ट हरु पनि यसमा सहमत छन् | अहिले नेपाल मा भएको महत्वपुर्ण द्वन्द पनि यहि नै हो तर नेपालका केहि कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी तथा अन्य पार्टी हरुले अहिले जसरि जात अनि क्षत्रिय राजनीति गरिरहेका छन् यो बिल्कुल कम्युनिस्टको सिध्दान्त भित्र नपर्ने कुरा हो र जनतालाई एकछिन को लागि बहकाउन, भोट माग्न, विपक्षी माथि प्रहार गर्न र निहित स्वार्थ पुरा गर्नको लागि गरिने यस किसिमको उक्साहट ले अन्त्यमा सम्बन्धित पार्टीलाई त क्ष्यती पुराउछ नै देशलाई पनि बर्बादीमा लाने काम गर्दछ | एकातिर जातपातको कुरा गर्नु अपराध हो भनेर संबिधानमा लेख्ने अनि अर्कोतिर त्यहि जातीय राजनीति गर्ने द्वैद चरित्रले गर्दा दिर्घकालिन रुपमा कम्युनिस्ट आन्दोलन लाइ नै पछाडी धकिलिदिन्छ | एकातिर भारतीय बिस्तारबाद र अमेरिकी साम्राज्यबाद भन्दै नबुजेका जनता भड्काउने अर्कोतिर तिनै देशका नेताहरु संग भेट हुदा नतमस्तक भएर लम्पसार पर्ने चलन कदापि ठिक हुन सक्दैन |

सन् २००९ मा भएको विश्व आर्थिक संकट हेर्दा पुंजिबाद को अन्त्य पनि ढिलो चाडो अबश्याम्भाबी देखिएको छ तर के अहिले बिश्वमा समाजबाद नै छैन त भन्ने प्रश्न अर्कोतिर छ | विश्व अर्थतन्त्र हेर्ने हो भने बर्तमान अवस्थामा विश्वले तिन किसिमको अर्थतन्त्र अङ्गीकार गरेको पाइन्छ | एकातिर समाजबाद (Sociolist) अर्थतन्त्र मान्ने उत्तर कोरिया, क्युबा जस्ता देश हरु छन् भने अर्को तिर पुंजिबादी अर्थतन्त्रमा (Capatalist) भारत, अमेरिका बेलायत युरोपियन मुलुकहरु छन् | त्यसैगरी मिश्रीत अर्थतन्त्र (Mixed Economy) अन्तर्गत चिन, रूस, भेनेजुएला आदि देशहरु पर्दछन | सूक्ष्म रुपमा अध्यन गर्ने हो भने न त बिशुद्द पुंजिबादी अर्थतन्त्रको अस्तित्व छ न त साम्यवाद को नै | उदाहरणको लागि अमेरिकी सरकार पुजीबादी अर्थतन्त्र को पक्ष्यपाती हो तर उसले धनि हरुसंग बाट कर उठाएर गरीबहरुको सुविधामा खर्चिन्छ | यो भन्दा अर्को समाजबादको राम्रो उदाहरण के हुन सक्छ? यसरि हेर्दा विश्व अर्थतन्त्र मिश्रीत अर्थतन्त्र भएको स्पष्ट हुन्छ | बि पी कोइराला समेत ले कार्ल मार्क्स को सिध्दान्तबाट प्रेरित भै समाजबाद ले नै नेपालि समाज लाइ फाइदा गर्छ भन्ने निस्कर्षमा पुगेका थिए | अहिलेको विश्वमा उत्तिकै अस्तित्वमा रहेको समाजबाद लाइ नेपालि सामाजिक बनोट अनुसार ढाल्न सकियो भने अहिले देखिएका समस्या हरु निस्प्रभाबि भएर जानेछन | त्यसैले यी सबै बस्तुस्थितिको अध्यन नगरी म कम्युनिस्ट भन्दै हिड्नुको कुनै माने हुदैन | हैन भने माथिको उदाहरणमा भनेजस्तै मैले ५ बिघा जग्गामा करोड को आप बेचेर कमाएको पैसा हो भन्दै भ्रस्टचारी उम्किरहन्छन जनता दुख पाइरहन्छन् | अत: देश अति कम बिकसित छ भन्दैमा दिमाग लाइ पनि अति कम बिकसित नबनाउने हो भने नेपालका कम्युनिस्ट हरु बर्तमान परिस्थितिलाई अध्यान गरि परिमार्जित हुनु जरुरि छ |

 

न�?पाल मा भ�?�?म�?प �?िन �?य�? ? र �?ब �?�? �?र�?न�??

Posted by naturead on May 6, 2015 at 1:10 PM Comments comments (0)

प्रकाशित http://setoparewa.com/2015/04/28/26828 २०७२ बैसाख भूकम्प 

अहिले नेपालमा गएको ठुलो भूकम्पले गर्दा ठुलो धन जनको नोक्सान मात्रै भएन प्राचिन कालका संरचनाहरु भत्केर एउटा इतिहासकै अन्त्य हुन पुग्यो। हुनत भौतिक सम्पति पुनर्निर्माण गर्न सकिएला तर मानबिय नोक्सान भने लामो समयसम्मको लागि दुखिरहने हुन्छ। बि स १९९० मा गएको भूकम्प पछी त्यति ठुलो भूकम्प नगएको ले यो समय भूकम्पको दृष्टिले अति नै जोखिमपूर्ण हो भनिदै आएको थियो। तर भूकम्पको पूर्व अनुमान गर्ने बैज्ञानिक आधार नभएकोले धेरैलाइ यो कुरा त्यति चासोको बिषय बन्दैनथ्यो। तर एउटा कुरा के हो भने बिगतमा गएका भूकम्पलाई आधार मानेर सम्भाव्यता निकाल्ने गरिन्छ जुन धेरै हदसम्म सत्य हुन्छ।

भूकम्प किन जान्छ ?

हामि बसेको जमिनमुनि कडा चट्टान (बेड रक) हुन्छ. यहि चट्टान माथिको भाग लाइ पृथ्बीको सतह (क्रेस्ट) भानिन्छ जसको सबैभन्दा माथिको सतहमा हामि बसिरहेका हुन्छौ जुन १०० कि मि सम्म गहिरो हुन्छ। हाम्रो पृथ्बी मा यस्ता ठुला चट्टानहरु ७ ओटा छन् र यिनीहरुलाई टेकटोनिक प्लेट भनिन्छ। यी प्लेट हरु एकापसमा जोडिएर बसेका हुन्छन र कुनै एक अर्कामा खप्टिएका पनि हुन्छन. हाम्रो देश नेपाल यस्तै २ ओटा प्लेट को संगम मा पर्छ. युरोसियन र इन्डीयन प्लेट को बिचमा भएको नेपाल भूकम्पको हिसाबले अत्यन्तै जोखिमपूर्ण एरियामा पर्दछ। इन्डीयन प्लेट युरोसियन प्लेट को मुनि धसिएर बसेको हुदा हिमालय बनेको हो. यो धस्सिने र बाहिरिने क्रम दिनदिनै जारि रहन्छ। जसरि बिना कुनै कारण पहराबाट ढुङ्गा फुटेर झर्छ त्यसरिनै यी २ प्लेट बीच पनि बेला बेलामा हलचल पैदा हुन्छ। यो हलचल पैदा हुनुको मुख्य कारण चाहि दुबै चट्टान मा इनर्जी पैदा हुनुले हो। यसमा जमिनमुनि हुने तातो लेदोको हलचल पनि उत्तिकै बराबरको कारक हुन सक्छ। अहिले आएको भूकम्प यहि हलचलको उपजले गर्दा आएको हो। भूकम्पले गर्दा २ किसिमको तरङ्ग पैदा गर्छ एउटा जमिनसंग दाया बाया र अर्को जमिनको तल माथि दाया बाया आउने तरङ्ग भन्दा तल माथि आउने तरङ्ग बडी हानिकारक हुन्छ किनकि यसले भवन लगायतका संरचनाको जग कम्जोर पारिदिन्छ। भूकम्पको केन्द्र भन्नाले हलचल सुरु भएको ठाउको ठिक माथिको जमिनको भागलाई भानिन्छ जसमा तलमाथि गर्ने तरङ्ग बडी हुने गर्छन र खतरनाक हुने गर्छ।

भूकम्प गैसकेपछि पटक पटक भूकम्प किन जान्छ ?

जसरि पहराबाट उछिट्टीएर आएको ढुङ्गा सन्तुलन मा आउन समय लाग्छ त्यसै गरि २ ओटा प्लेट बिचको हलचल सन्तुलन मा आउन पनि समय लाग्दछ। सामान्यतया भुकम्पपछी यी प्लेटहरु फेरी सन्तुलनमा आउन चाहन्छन जसको कारणले पटक पटक भूकम्प जाने गर्छ। यसबाट तपाइले सजिलै अन्दाज लगाउन सक्नुहुन्छ कि ठुलो भूकम्प पछिको कम्पन पहिलाको जस्तो बलियो हुदैन। तर यो क्रम प्लेट सन्तुलनमा नआएसम्म चलिरहन्छ। त्यसैले ठुलो भूकम्प पछी साना साना भूकम्प आउनु सामान्य घटना हो। तर यदि त्यो भूकम्प पहिला जस्तै लामो समयसम्म आयो भने पछी आएको भूकम्पले पनि बडी नोक्सान पुर्याउन सक्छ। समय बित्दै जादा पछी आउने भूकम्पको शक्ति पनि कम हुदै जान्छ। यदि संरचना चर्किएको र कम्जोर भैसकेको छ भने भुकम्पछी त्यो संरचनामा नबस्नु नै उचित हुन्छ। भूकम्प र ज्वालामुखी बिल्कुल फरक कुरा भएको ले यसमा डराउनुपर्ने कारण हुदैन। तर ज्वालामुखी गैराखने ठाउमा भूकम्प गयो भने चाहि ज्वाला मुखी पनि फुट्न सक्छ अथवा ज्वालामुखी निस्किदा भूकम्प पनि आउन सक्छ. तर हामि ज्वालामुखी आउने खालको कम्जोर भूभागमा नभएको हुनाले यसको रति पनि डर मान्नुपर्दैन.

सम्भाव्यता बाहेक भूकम्प को भाबिश्यबानी गर्ने कुनै बैज्ञानिक आधार छैन। त्यसैले यो दिन यस्तो भूकम्प जादैछ भन्नु हल्ला मात्रै हो। तर सामान्यतया ८० बर्सको हाराहारीमा एउटा ठुलो भूकम्प जाने सम्भावाना हुनछ। यो पनि कुनै बैज्ञानिक आधारले पुस्टि गरेको तथ्य हैन तर पुरानो भूकम्प हरुको अध्ययन गर्दा यो कुरा सत्य रहदै आएको छ।

भुकम्पपछी को अवस्था मानबिय हिसाब ले झनै महत्वपुर्ण हुन्छ र यो समय मा आफ्नो स्वास्थ्यको एकदमै ख्याल गर्नुपर्ने हुन्छ। पानि बिजुली को अभाब, आगलागी, चोरको बिगबिगी, मरेका मानिसहरुको दुर्गन्ध, भत्केका संरचना बाट आउने धुलो, मानिसहरुबीच आदानप्रदान हुने भ्रामक समाचार आदि कारणले धेरै नै साबधानी अपनाउन जरुरि हुन्छ। यो समय भनेको धैर्य गरेर आफ्नो स्वास्थ्यको ख्याल राख्नुपर्ने बेला भएकोले साबधानी अपनाउन जरुरि छ। साथसाथै घाइतेको उद्दार र आफ्नो ठाउबाट सक्दो सहयोग गरेर स्थिति सामान्यकरण पट्टि लाग्नु जरुरि छ। यदि कुनै कारणबस इपिडेमिक (सरुवा रोग ) फैलियो भने त्यसले झन् धेरै मानिसको ज्यान जान सक्ने कुरा ख्याल गर्नुपर्ने हुन्छ।

बिश्व इतिहासलाई हेर्ने हो भने भुकम्पछी राजनीतिज्ञहरु साना तिना काम मा न अल्झेर देसको पुनर्निर्माण र बिकास मा लागेको पाइन्छ। इन्डोनेसिया, श्रीलंका, जापान आदि देश हरु ले शोकलाई शक्तिमा बदलेर उन्नति पट्टि लम्किएका उदाहरण हुन्। यो अत्यन्तै दुखद घडी भएतापनि धैर्यतापुर्बक यसको सामना गरेर नया भुकम्पप्रतिरोधि संरचनाको बिकास गर्ने एउटा अवसर पनि हो।

 

ई. भरत चालिसे

लेखक इन्डियन इन्स्टिच्युट अफ टेक्नोलोजी दिल्लीमा स्ट्रक्चर इन्जिनिरिंग बिषयमा स्नातकत्तोर गर्दै हुनुहुन्छ

 

 

 

RCC Member Design Tips for Structural Engineer

Posted by naturead on March 3, 2015 at 2:40 AM Comments comments (0)

RCC MEMBER DESIGN TIPS

A.BEAMS:

OVERALL DEPTH OF BEAMS:

SL.NO MEMBER SPAN/OVERALL DEPTH RATIO

1. PLINTH BEAM 15 TO 18

2. TIE BEAM 18 TO 20

3. FLOOR BEAMS 12 TO 15

4. GRID BEAMS 20 TO 30

1. Beam sections should be designed for:

a. Moment values at the column face & (not the value at centre line as per analysis)

b. Shear values at distance of d from the column face. (not the value at centre line as per analysis)

c. Moment redistribution is allowed for static loads only.

d. For beams spanning between the columns about the weak axis, the moments at the end support shall be reduced more and distributed and the span moments shall be increased accordingly to account for the above reduction.

e. Moment distribution shall be done in such a way that 15% of the support moments shall be added to the span moment without the support moments getting reduced.

f. The section within the span shall be designed for the increased span moment which will account for the concentrated & isolated loading that may act within one span.

g. Moment redistribution is not allowed if

1. moment co-efficient taken from code table

2. designed for earthquake forces and for lateral loads.

2. At least 1/3 of the +ve moment reinforcement in SIMPLE SUPPORTS & ¼ the +ve moment reinforcement in CONTINUOUS MEMBERS shall extend along the same face of the member into the support, to a length equal to Ld/3. (Ld-development length)

3. Use higher grade of concrete if most of the beams are doubly reinforced. Also when Mu/bd^2 goes above 6.0.

4. Try to design a minimum width for beams so that the all beam reinforcement passes through the columns. This is for the reason that any reinforcement outside the column will be ineffective in resisting compression.

5. Restrict the spacing of stirrups to 8”(200mm) or ¾ of effective depth whichever is less.(for static loads)

6. Whenever possible try to use T-beam or L-beam concept so as to avoid compression reinforcement.

7. Use a min. of 0.2% for compression reinforcement to aid in controlling the deflection, creep and other long term deflections.

8. Bars of Secondary beam shall rest on the bars of the Primary beam if the beams are of the same depth. The kinking of bars shall be shown clearly on the drawing.

9. Length of curtailment shall be checked with the required development length.

10. Keep the higher diameter bars away from the N.A(i.e. layer nearest to the tension face) so that max. lever arm will be available.

11. Hanger bars shall be provided on the main beam whenever heavy secondary beam rests on the main beam.(Try to avoid the hanger bar if secondary beam has less depth than the main beam, as there are enough cushions available).

12. The detailing for the secondary beam shall be done so that it does not induce any TORSION on the main beam.

13. For cantilever beams reinforcement at the support shall be given a little more and the development length shall be given 25% more.

14. As a short cut, bending moment for a beam (partially continuous or fully continuous) can be assumed as wl^2/10 and the same reinforcement can be detailed at span and support. This thumb rule should not be applied for simply supported beams.

B:SLAB

 

EFFECTIVE DEPTH:

Sl.no SLAB SPAN/EFFE.DEPTH

1. One- way simply supported slab 30

2. One-way continuous slabs 35

3. Two-way simply supported slabs 38 for L/B=1.5

35 for L/B>1.5

4. Teo-way continuous slabs 40 for L/B=1.5

38 for L/B>1.5

1. Whenever the slab thickness is 150mm, the bar diameter shall be 10mm for normal spacing.(It can be 8mm at very closely spaced).

2. Slab thickness can be 10mm,110mm,120mm,125mm,150mm, etc.

3. The maximum spacing of Main bar shall not exceed 200mm(8”) and the distribution bars @ 250mm(10”).

4. If the roof slab is supported by load bearing wall(without any frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the length of supports which will aid in resisting the lateral forces.

5. If the roof is of sheet(AC/GI) supported by load bearing wall (without any frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the length of supports except at the eaves. The bed block is provided to keep the sheets in position from WIND.

6. For the roof slab provide a min. of 0.24% of slab cross sectional area reinforcement to take care of the temperature and other weathering agent and for the ponding of rain water etc since it is exposed to outside the building enclosure.

 

C COLUMN:

1. Section should be designed for the column moment values at the beam face.

2. Use higher grade of concrete when the axial load is predominant.

3. Go for a higher section properties when the moment is predominant.

4. Restrict the maximum % of reinforcement to 3.

5. Detail the reinforcement in column in such a way that it gets maximum lever arm for the axis about which the column moment acts.

6. Position of lap shall be clearly mentioned in the drawing according to the change in reinforcement. Whenever there is a change in reinforcement at a junction, lap shall be provided to that side of the junction where the reinforcement is less.

7. Provide laps at midheight of column to minimize the damage due to moments(Seismic forces).

8. Avoid KICKER concrete to fix column form work since it is the weakest link due to weak and non compacted part.

D FOOTING:

1. Never assume the soil bearing capacity and at least have one trial pit to get the real site Bearing capacity value.

2. Check the Factor of Safety used by the Geotechnical engineer for finding the SBC.

3. SBC can be increased depending on the N-value and type of footing that is going to be designed. Vide IS-1893-2000(part-I).

4. Provide always PLINTH BEAMS resting on natural ground in orthogonal directions connecting all columns which will help in many respect like reducing the differential settlement of foundations, reducing the moments on footings etc.

5. Always assume a hinged end support for column footing for analysis unless it is supported by raft and on pile cap.

The Common assumption of full fixity at the column base may only be valid for columns supported on RIGID RAFT foundations or on individual foundation pads supported by

short stiff piles or by foundation walls in Basement. Foundation pads supported on deformable soil may have considerable rotational flexibility, resulting in column forces in the

bottom storey quite different from those resulting from the assumption of a rigid base. The consequences can be unexpected column HINGES at the top of lower storey

columns under seismic lateral forces. In such cases the column base should be modeled by a rotational springs. (Ref:page 164-Seismic design of Reinforced concrete and

Masonry buildings by T.Paulay & M.J.N.Priestley.)

Also refer the Reinforced concrete Designer’s Handbook by Reynold where it is clearly mention about the column base support.

 

E R.C.C.WALLS:

 

1. The minimum reinforcement for the RCC wall subject to BM shall be as follows:

A. Vertical reinforcement:

a) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater.

b) 0.0015 of cross sectional area for other types of bars.

c) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger than 16mm in diameter.

Maximum horizontal spacing for the vertical reinforcement shall neither exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm.

B. Horizontal reinforcement.

a) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater.

b) 0.0025 of cross sectional area for other types of bars.

c) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger than 16mm in diameter.

Maximum vertical l spacing for the vertical reinforcement shall neither exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm.

NOTE: The minimum reinforcement may not always be sufficient to provide adequate resistance to effects of shrinkage and temperature.

2. The He/t for a RCC wall shall not exceed 30 as per IS:456=2000, where He is the effective height of the wall and t is the thickness of the RC wall. He for a braced wall will be :

a) 0.75 H, if the rotations are restrained at the ends by floors where h is the height of the wall.

b) 1.0h .

MISCELLANEOUS:

Ref: (Principle of structures by Ariel Hanaor).

1. TRUSS:

The Depth to span ratio for a truss is h/L=10. Beyond a certain optimal value, increase in structural depth increases weight. The same principle applies to trusses. An optimal

depth/span ratio for a planar truss is approximately 1/10. Although forces in the CHORDS decrease with increasing depth, forces in the WEB are practically UNCHANGED and

increasing the depth increases the lengths of these members. Approximately half the web members are in COMPRESSION and increasing their lengths reduces their efficiency

due to the increased susceptibility to BUCKLING.

 

2. VIERENDEEL GIRDER:

 

The span to depth ratio=1/8 to 1/10 are typical.

The compression on top chord or tension in the bottom chord for a UDL loading is C=T= qL^2/8h where q is the udl and h is the depth.

 

3. CABLE:

 

A structure in pure TENSION having the funicular shape of its load is termed as Cable.

4.ARCH:

 

Let us now invert the shape of a cable under a given load, that is the sag at any point is turned into a rise. The point is now above the chord joining the end points by the

same amount it was previously below it. A structure built according to the funicular shape in COMPRESSION is termed as an ARCH.

The optional rise to span ratio for an arch is in the range of 1/6-1/4. The depth to span ratio of an arch is usually in the range of 1/40 -1/70.

 

5. FOLDED PLATE:

 

The typical depth /span ratio is in the range from 1/15 to 1/10.

 

6. FLATE PLATE:

A typical depth of a solid FLAT PLATE is 1/22 -1/18 of the effective span.

 

7. TWO-WAY RIBBED SLAB:

 

Supported on continuous stiff supports are in the range of 1/30-1/25 of the lesser effective span.

8. FLAT PLATE RIBBED SLAB:

Typical depth of flat plate ribbed slabs are in the range of 1/20-1/17 of the lesser effective span.

 

9. DOMES:

The structural depth of DOMES is the full height of the dome from base to crown. Depth to span ratio range from as low as 1/8 for shallow domes to ½ for deep domes.

A depth /span ratio of 1/5-1/4 is a common value which is near optimal for many applications.

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Development of Entrepreneurship Culture: Great Challenge for Developing Countries; Experience from Nepal

Posted by naturead on December 16, 2014 at 12:00 AM Comments comments (0)

10th International Strategic Management Conference

Development of Entrepreneurship Culture: Great Challenge for Developing Countries; Experience from Nepal

Bharat Chalise

PhD (Marketing) Student, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey

Abstract

Entrepreneurs create jobs, pay taxes, create demand for product which turn creates jobs for other businesses, introduce new technology in the market and stimulate the economy by instilling confidence in people. These are the common reason why entrepreneurship is important for any country. Sustainable economy is directly related to number of potential entrepreneurs country is producing in certain period of time. For developed economy it is quite easy to start start-ups because of accessibility to capital, advanced technology and accessibility of good information. But for developing countries there are lots of problems to start new venture or for innovation. Several factors are responsible behind this complexity. This perspective article explored some of the major challenges to developing countries government to make good entrepreneurial environment and also includes some experiences from Nepal. There are several studies done to identify factors affecting entrepreneurship. Some of them are economic, psychological, political, cultural and social factors (Brockhaus & Nord, 2013). But in developing countries there are an extra challenges to motivate people for innovation because lack of political stability, corrupted bureaucrats, injustice and lack of physical infrastructures and skilled resources and technology. In conclusion, Training, access to the capital through loans, security of investment, and realistic accessibility on market information, e-governance, regular supervision and entry stage tax subsidy are the major contribution government can do for entrepreneurship development. Proper implementation of those techniques is still challenge for developing countries and much more challenge for least developed countries.

 

© 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 10th International Strategic Management Conference

 

Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Start-up;, Motivation; Capital; Developing Countries; Business

1. Introduction

 

The role of entrepreneurship in society has changed drastically over the last half century. During the post-World War II era, the importance of entrepreneurship and small businesses seemed to be fading away (Audretsch & Keilbach, 2006). While alarm was expressed that small business needed to be preserved and protected for social and political reasons, few made the case on the grounds of economic efficiency. It has been increasingly recognized Entrepreneurship behind the successful economies. Entrepreneurship has been accepted as one of the driving forces for market competitiveness and economic growth in the emerging economies. Entrepreneurship contributes to development, with a positive effect on society, expanding larger tax base and more consumer wellbeing. Entrepreneurial dynamism is the key to innovation and growth which drives economies these days. Entrepreneurs are individuals or group of individuals who invest capital, organize and direct business and industrial units. An entrepreneur assembles, coordinates and directs various factors of production namely land, labor, capital and other materials. An entrepreneur initiates ventures, employs workers, organizes production, develops markets and influences the development of managerial thoughts.

Entrepreneurs are a creative, driven individual who finds new combination of factors of production to develop new product, corner a new market, or design a new technology. An entrepreneur could be a trader, a technician, an educated unemployed or the like. However, in Nepal’s mainstream economics entrepreneurship has not played a central role in economic development for decades. The main focus of current donor depended national economy has been on allocation of resources and how it is achieved by markets or by governments.

Role of Entrepreneurship in Economy

An entrepreneur, who is also known as a risk-bearer, is the central figure in this modern era of business. Economic development of any country cannot be initiated without the pioneering efforts of entrepreneurs. Many economists including Joseph Schumpeter glorified the role of the entrepreneur and regarded him as the key figure in the process of economic development. He identified that the ultimate determining factor of the rate of economic growth is the availability of dynamic entrepreneurship in the country concerned. Rapid economic catch-up depends on countries’ entrepreneurs being able to absorb and creatively adapt international technological knowledge (Wim Naudé & Goedhuys, 2011).

Per capita income growth requires shifts from less productive to more productive techniques per worker, the creation or adoption of new commodities, new materials, new markets, new organizational forms, the creation of new skill, and the accumulation of new knowledge, the entrepreneur as gap filler and input-completer is probably the prime mover of the capacity creation part of these elements in the growth process (Ács & Virgill, 2009).

2. Literature Review

 

The concept of entrepreneurship was first established in the 1700s, and the meaning has evolved ever since. Many simply equate it with starting one's own business. Most economists believe it is more than that. Entrepreneurship is the key driving force behind economic growth and innovation around the world (U.S. Department of State/Bureau of International Information Programs, 2008). Entrepreneurs have the ability to turn new ideas into breakthrough solutions while creating employment and spreading prosperity. It is entrepreneurs who will most likely create solutions to the world’s most important and complex challenges surrounding health, energy and human development. But entrepreneurs alone cannot make change happen, no matter how visionary and persistent, unless they operate in an environment that supports and rewards risk-taking. People choose entrepreneurial careers when they anticipate economic, psychological or social rewards that outweigh the risks relative to more traditional forms of employment. An improved understanding of the types of regulatory and cultural environments that foster entrepreneurships can help develop policies designed to advance continuous innovation and new business creation. What are the critical success factors and best practice models for the development of entrepreneurship? What are the barriers (World Economic Forum, 2010)?

To some economists, the entrepreneur is one who is willing to bear the risk of a new venture if there is a significant chance for profit. Others emphasize the entrepreneur’s role as an innovator who markets his innovation. Still other economists say that entrepreneurs develop new goods or processes that the market demands and are not currently being supplied. In the 20th century, economist Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950) focused on how the entrepreneur’s drive for innovation and improvement creates upheaval and change. Schumpeter viewed entrepreneurship as a force of “creative destruction” (U.S. Department of State/Bureau of International Information Programs, 2008). The entrepreneur carries out “new combinations,” thereby helping render old industries obsolete. Established ways of doing business are destroyed by the creation of new and better ways to do them. Business expert Peter Drucker (1909-2005) took this idea further, describing the entrepreneur as someone who actually searches for change, responds to it, and exploits change as an opportunity (Drucker P. , 2014).

Most economists today agree that entrepreneurship is a necessary ingredient for stimulating economic growth and employment opportunities in all societies. In the developing world, successful small businesses are the primary engines of job creation, income growth, and poverty reduction. Therefore, government support for entrepreneurship is a crucial strategy for economic development. As the Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) said in 2003, “Policies to foster entrepreneurship are essential to job creation and economic growth.” Government officials can provide incentives that encourage entrepreneurs to risk attempting new ventures. Among these are laws to enforce property rights and to encourage a competitive market system.

The culture of a community also may influence how much entrepreneurship there is within it. Different levels of entrepreneurship may stem from cultural differences that make entrepreneurship more or less rewarding personally. A community that accords the highest status to those at the top of hierarchical organizations or those with professional expertise may discourage entrepreneurship. A culture or policy that accords high status to the “self-made” individual is more likely to encourage entrepreneurship. Several studies have analyzed different aspects of entrepreneurship defined as the level of self-employment. They include (Stephena, Urbanob, & Hemmenb, 2005), who analyze the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth and find that the former’s influence on the latter depends on the level of income. Thurik find that non-economic factors such as culture are important determinants of entrepreneurship (J. Hessels & Thurik, 2007). Entrepreneurship is about more than just starting new companies. It is about creating jobs; helping move the self-employed to those who can employ others also. It is about growing the economy in a sustainable way. It is about bringing new technologies and ideas to emerging markets. Importantly, entrepreneurship is also about empowering people and equipping them with dignity and self-confidence.

3. Entrepreneurship: Challenge for Developing Countries

 

As we know the management of capital is one of the fundamental requirements to be an entrepreneur. If we talk about the income of people from developing countries is increasing 20 to 40 percent in last decades in the same time Per Capita Income of Nepal has increased by almost 37% (The World Bank, 2013). But the entrepreneurial activities are not pleasingly increased.

One side of the story, Entrepreneurs have been facing so many barriers in the way of creation of new ventures and smooth operation of the existing ones in developing economy. Nepalese businessmen and entrepreneurs have viewed that their main barriers include limited access to capital, political instability, shortage of skilled manpower and technology, low return from industrial investment and low level of confidence and lack of favorable policy of the government. It is realized that with this slow pace of industrialization Nepal can’t stand in global competition. Due to complex, and frustrating political situation, intertwined with daily economic activities, Nepal’s economic health is deteriorated further. Thus, it is very appropriate time at present to review such activities and discourage unproductive investments through the private sector awareness. People in Nepal need to understand entrepreneurship can be way to create job, grow international competitiveness in global market with new mandate to promote and/or create innovative business.

Next face of the Nepalese entrepreneurship environment is fundamental problem with knowledge and motivation. Basic need for startup the enterprises is capital management. In Nepal, most of the households obtaining remittance, that is simply sufficient to establish microenterprises or any other medium and large enterprises. They are very poor in capital management in comparison with similar developing countries like India and Bangladesh. This lack of efficiency is leading country more dependent on import. Sustainable development of a country can imagine after new ventures creation and development of entrepreneurship on its people. Now this became a great problem for developing countries like Nepal because very few people are motivated to invest on new SMEs due to lack of confident and many other factors which will discussed below.

Economic development cannot be initiated without the pioneering efforts of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs have key role to play in the process of industrial development in particular and economic development in general. But entrepreneurs in Nepal are very shy to invest capital in industrial sector (KC, 2004).Therefore, it is essential to induce entrepreneurs to mobilize their resources in industrial sector. Government should implement an appropriate policy to motivate the entrepreneurs and to develop industries in the country. Finally the attitude of the people to become rich overnight must be changed through effective policy reforms.

The evidence shows that almost one fourth of the GDP is contributed by the remittance in Nepal (The Kathmandu Post, 2010). Recent year’s balance of payment is positive due to remittance but the issue is the use of the money in unproductive sector. Study shows the economic panic in productive investment of those countries despite the rise in income of people (Chalise, 2014). Next chapter it will be answered the encounters facing by the emerging countries to establish entrepreneurship atmosphere.

4. Analysis and Discussion

 

The first and perhaps most obvious factor affecting entrepreneurship in developing countries is the lack of capital and financial innovation. Many people in these countries have limited personal savings and lack the necessary capital to start their own business. Entrepreneurs must then turn to external financing where they are charged high interest rates due to the risky nature of new business projects. With underdeveloped financial markets and expensive borrowing rates, entrepreneurs in emerging economies often use informal sources of finance to start their businesses and generate income from multiple jobs or businesses. With that being said, this is where an advantage of developing countries comes into play. But this is a great challenge for developing countries to develop entrepreneurial mind set, motivations, behaviours, decision making process, risk uncertainty and stakeholder’s involvement (Green, 2014). From a psychological point of view, the intention to become an entrepreneur has been described as the single best predictor of actual behaviour (Fransisco Linan, 2005). Before discussion on present scenario of entrepreneurship let us find some of the reasons that is affecting entrepreneurship.

 

Following figure shows the ease of doing business in different countries. All the top rankers in the chart are developed countries and developing countries are trying to make environment favourable. The major problem for developing country is to save domestic entrepreneurs in this competitive world. Once open for the international market level of competition increased and in this environment always giants in advantage. This is the great challenge to open domestic market to international entrepreneurs for developing countries.

 

 

 

Economy Ease of Doing Business Rank Economy Starting Business Rank

Singapore 1 New Zealand 1

Hong Kong SAR, China 2 Canada 2

New Zealand 3 Singapore 3

United States 4 Australia 4

Denmark 5 Hong Kong 5

Nepal 105 Nepal 97

India 134 India 179

Bangladesh 130 Bangladesh 74

Turkey 69 Turkey 93

 

Figure 1: Comparative Business Environment (Source: World Bank doing business project)

 

4.1 Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship

There are many research and articles regarding factors affecting entrepreneurship which are generalized. But for every society some factors are unique and can’t generalized. According to Lorraine (2010) Cultural factor is leading factor to grow entrepreneurship but what I seeing is Cultural factor is not a top most factor for entrepreneurship development there are other factors which are equally important. Here are some of the factors that are affecting entrepreneurship.

 

Economic Factors

To make a profit innovation require basic facilities like transportation, communication, power supply etc. they reduce the overall cost of business and lead towards the profit. Every innovation required some level of capital. Foreign exchange is also affects in developing countries. Avaibility of capital is another major factor. There is also some risk associated with developing countries. Economic policy, availability of reliable data and government interest also affects the business environment. Most of the developing countries are suffering with unavaibility of skill labours. They can easily import latest technology and machinary but it is hard to operate and maintain for the long run. Because the can import technology from abroad but cannot afford foreign labour because of higher payment for them.

 

Social Factors

A society that is rational in decision making would be favorable for decision-making. Education, research and training is given less importance in less developed countries therefore there is very little vertical mobility of labor. Religious, social and cultural factors also influence the individual taking upon entrepreneurial career, in some countries there is religious and cultural belief that high profit is unethical. This type of belief inhibits growth of entrepreneurship. In less developed countries the entrepreneur is looked upon with suspicion. Public opinion in the less developed nations sees in the entrepreneur only a profit maker and exploited. So a personality factor is a one of the motivation for entrepreneur. To be motivated lots of things play important role among them education background, occupational experience, Family background, financial availability, desire to work independently, Assistance from financial institution, Availability of technology and family tradition are the major motivators for entrepreneurship development.

Cultural and Religious Factors

Religious, social and cultural factors also influence the individual taking up an entrepreneurial career, in some countries there is religious and cultural belief that high profits unethical. This type of belief inhibits growth of entrepreneurship.

 

Psychological Factors

The psychological factors like high need for achievement, determination of unique accomplishment, self-confidence, creativity, leadership, promote entrepreneurship. On the other hand psychological factors like security, conformity and compliance, need for affiliation etc. restrict promotion of entrepreneurship.

 

Political Factors

Political environment and political stability of country influence the growth of entrepreneurship. The political system, which promotes free market, individual freedom and private enterprise, will promote entrepreneurship.

 

Economic Policies

The economic policies of the government and other financial institutions and the opportunities available in a society as a result of such policies play a crucial role in exerting direct influence on entrepreneurship. In view of the haphazard development of economic zones, Government is encouraging the entrepreneurs to establish their business in backward and tribal areas. This is primarily to arrest the migration of people from the villages to cities and to create employment opportunities locally. Government is promoting such development by giving incentives like tax holidays (both sales and income), subsidized power tariff, raw materials, transportation cost etc.

 

These are the important factors affecting entrepreneurship explored during study. Beside these there may be other factors like political environment, availability of funding, availability of market and technology also affects the business environment (Lorraine Uhlaner, 2004). Now developing countries are facing their special problem apart from those common problems. Let us take an example of Business Environment of Nepal and Canada. It takes on an average 17 days to register a firm in Nepal and it costs almost 35% of per capita income but in Canada it will finish only in 5 days and it costs only 0.4 % of the income. Average number of days in OECD is 11.5 days and cost is around 12% of per capita income. In south Asia average days is 16 and cost is only 20% (Doing Business 2014, World Bank, 2013). This shows business environment in Nepal is time consuming than developed countries.

 

Most important but not first factor affecting business environment is behaviour and response from government officers. According to the Transparency International Nepal internal revenue and custom departments are the most corrupted in Nepal. This means you have to face a lot of problem while registering and updating the firm. Bribery is so organized and officers are handling it so systematically and disciplined way to escape from the government investigation. Even you start your business you have to face lots of hurdles to run it’s in a legal way. This is the major factor of frustration and demotivation for entrepreneurs in Nepal.

 

Government is allocating sufficient budget since 2000 for e-governance but still progress is like zero in Nepal. All the government employees are resisting change. They have great fear about their illegal income once the e-governance adopted their source of extra income will dry. All those are happening due to political instability. Nobody is accountable with their duty and job and this situation making organization fail and lead to corruption. Finally what we can say is lack of good political vision and instability in politics making entrepreneurs demotivated and demoralized in developing countries.

In some cases entrepreneurs themselves are not so competent to compete with this world. Entrepreneurial education, training, management of organization are the major drawbacks of some entrepreneurs. Shortage of knowledge either finishes the business or resists grow. To improve entrepreneurship efficiency government should organize some workshops and training programs but in Nepal government is dedicated to collect tax but not interest to motivate people to be an entrepreneur.so what we can say is entrepreneurial education and knowledge is the major factor affecting entrepreneurship and innovation. Conclusion and Recommendation

 

Entrepreneurship has certain economic value for the development of nation because it creates employment and innovation. It is equally important for developed and developing economy. In developed economy people are confident, high access to their capital and availability of information rate is high so people can easily start their ventures and also they don’t hesitate to invest on research and development. Contrary entrepreneurs from developing economy are suffering from different problems as mentioned above.

 

There is no shortage of entrepreneurship in developing countries. But the policy and institutional environment is an important determinant of innovative behaviour. Government support for innovation is important. This can take many forms ranging from reform of the environment for doing business to providing venture capital, to tapping into migrant workers and diasporas, provision of technical and managerial education, infrastructure and more active state– private-sector partnerships (Wim Naude & Goedhuys, 2011). Talking about the countries like Nepal which is agriculture and remittance based economy continuously suffering from power cut problems. People are shying to invest on production and manufacturing sector because of power cut and political insecurity. People income level is increasing because of remittance and same time number of dependent family members also increasing. Most of the remittance is either expending on general expenses or for luxury items. They don’t want to establish enterprises because of lack of knowledge, confidence and volatile market. Improper policies government motivation and social culture to be a migrant worker are the next important factor affecting their entrepreneurship.

 

Developing countries have their own problems and which are rigorously affecting entrepreneurship environment. Political, economic, social, cultural, psychological factors are the common factors for developing as well as developed countries. But there are special factors for developing countries like lack of entrepreneurial education, political vandalism, long and complex process of registration, injustice, corruption, lack of skilled manpower, technology and power problems continuously affecting economic development of developing countries.

 

Most noticeable point to those who are starting their start-ups in developing countries doesn’t know how to grow. They start the enterprise but cannot expand their scope because they don’t know about the marketing, competitiveness, pricing policies and most important they can’t wait for long time. They need immediate change and profit but they don’t know how to grow and make profit. All the problems are somehow associated with their knowledge level and business environment. This scenario indicates that government has lots of stuffs to be done for the entrepreneurship development. Training, access to the capital through loans, security of investment, justice, e-governance and realistic accessibility on market information, regular supervision and entry stage tax subsidy are the major contribution government can do for entrepreneurship development.

REFERENCES

Ács, Z. J., & Virgill, N. (2009). Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries. Jena economic research papers, No. 2009,023.

Audretsch, D. B., & Keilbach, M. (2006). Entrepreneurship Capital – Determinants and Impact on Regional Economic Performance. Boston: American Economic Association.

Brockhaus, R. H., & Nord, W. R. (2013). An Exploration of Factors Affecting the Entrepreneurial Decision: Personal Characteristic vs. Environmental Conditions. Academy of Management, 1-10.

Chalise, B. (2014, 1 22). Blog. Retrieved from Bharat Chalise: www.bharatchalise.webs.com

Doing Business 2014, World Bank. (2013). Doing Business 2014 Understanding Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises. Washington DC: A World Bank Group Corporate Flagship.

Drucker, P. (2014, 1 28). MBA in 1 Day. Retrieved from MBA in 1 Day: http://www.mbainoneday.com/gclid=CISjk8DR2rUCFYwa6wodwEoAvg

F.H.Stephena, D. U., & Hemmenb, S. (2005). The Impact of Institutions on Entrepreneural Activity. New York: Wiley Inter Science.

Fransisco Linan, J. C.-C. (2005). Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels. 45th Congress of the European Regional Science Association (pp. 1-18). Amsterdam: European Regional Science Association.

Green, D. J. (2014, 1 22). Developing Innovative Ideas for New Companies: The First Step in Entrepreneurship. Retrieved from Coursera, University of Merryland: https://class.coursera.org/innovativeideas-005

Hessels, J., Gelderen, M. v., & Thurik, R. (2007). Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers. Small Business Economics Forum.

J. Hessels, M. G., & Thurik, R. (2007). Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers. Small Business Economics Forum., 5.

KC, D. F. (2004). ENTREPRENURES IN NEPAL : An Empirical Study. Kathmandu: Tribhuwan University Nepal.

Lorraine Uhlaner, R. T. (2004). Post-Materialism: A Cultural Factor Influencing Total Entrepreneurial Activity Across Nations. Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy (p. 20). Geneva: Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy.

Stephena, F. H., Urbanob, D., & Hemmenb, S. v. (2005). The Impact of Institutions on Entrepreneural Activity. Wiley Inter Science.

The Kathmandu Post. (2010, 11 10). Nepal Among Top 5 Countries. Business and Economy, p. 2.

The World Bank. (2013). GDP Per Capita (US$). World Bank.

U.S. Department of State/Bureau of International Information Programs. (2008). Principle of Entrepreneurship. Taipei: U.S. Department of State.

Wim Naude, A. S., & Goedhuys, M. (2011). Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries. UNU-WIDER, 1-8.

World Economic Forum. (2010). Entrepreneurship. Summit on the Global Agenda. World Economic Forum.

 

 

Difference Between Cable Stayed and Cantilever Beam Bridge

Posted by naturead on November 23, 2014 at 10:30 PM Comments comments (0)

Cable Stayed Bridge

This type is unlike suspension bridge can stay in single pylon/tower or multiple.

Load is taken by cables and transfer to ground through the pylon

Better for longer span where beam cantelever bridge is hard to construct

This is expensive for shorter spans

Comparatively risky in wind prone zone

High skilled human resource required

Balance Cantelever Bridge

This type of bridge is used for longer span of concrete bridges

Load of the slab and girder is balanced because of equal projection on each side of pier

Prestressed cantelever bridge is popular at this time although it can be constructed cast in situ basis

Stitched and nonstitched option available but stitched is preferable which holds the contunuity of bridge

Easy to construct than cable stayed bridge

No steel cables required

Can construct in local level by using semiskilled and skilled resources

Difference Between Limit State and Working Stress Method

Posted by naturead on November 6, 2014 at 7:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Difference Between Limit State and Working Stress Method

Working Stress Method

  • The Stresses in an element is obtained from the working loads and compared with permissible stresses.
  • The method follows linear stress-strain behaviour of both the materials.
  • Modular ratio can be used to determine allowable stresses.
  • Material capabilities are under estimated to large extent. Factor of safety are used in working stress method.
  • The member is considered as working stress.
  • Ultimate load carrying capacity cannot be predicted accurately.
  • The main drawback of this method is that it results in an uneconomical section.

Limit State Method

  • The stresses are obtained from design loads and compared with design strength.
  • In this method, it follows linear strain relationship but not linear stress relationship (one of the major difference between the two methods of design).
  • The ultimate stresses of materials itself are used as allowable stresses.
  • The material capabilities are not under estimated as much as they are in working stress method. Partial safety factors are used in limit state method.

Turkey-EU relations

Posted by naturead on February 15, 2014 at 1:30 PM Comments comments (0)

Turkey is at an important location to bridge Asia and Europe. Now Turkey is an emerging economy of the world. Due to its socio cultural and geological position it was very hard to decide its economy which side should be oriented? After declaration as a republic country, especially after Second World War country has been facing towards the western side.

A new period began in the relations between Turkey and the EU after Turkey assumed “candidate status” during the Helsinki Summit on 10-11 December 1999. Now, Turkey is a part and parcel of the European family, Turkey not only had an influence on the political, economic and socio-cultural developments in the Continent but has also been influenced by them. An overall evaluation of the history of Europe cannot be made without analyzing the role that Turkey played in the Continent. As in the past, the destinies of Turkey and other European countries are intertwined. If we go through the history in deep Turkey has several options to lead economic integration. As a majority of Muslim population it could play a vital role for Arab world union. In other side history of Turkey has its own pride and still there are few countries as a Turk origin called Turk world. It could be a leader of Turk world and save its prestige set by Osman Empire. But the country is on the way to be a full member of European Union. Of course there are many advantage to be European Union to its economy but same time it is also losing some opportunity to be a leader of its own community.

To my knowledge to be a full membership Turkey is going through a long process. There are lots of acts and constitutional reformations about human right, trading barrier and political view towards other world. Country is negotiating on Free Movement of Capital, Company Law, Intellectual Property Law, Information Society and Media, Food Safety, Taxation, Enterprise & Industrial Policy, Consumer & Health Protection etc.

With its strategic geostatic position and economy there is no doubt it will be a most important member of EU community very soon. Economic growth, political stability, development and continuously growing living standards are the fact behind this.

 

Bharat Chalise

February 15, 2014

 


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